The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance provide Clues to Genome Evolution and Function
Jacob W. Malcom, Randal S. Kudra, John H. Malone
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 USA
Frog intercourse chromosomes offer a perfect system for advancing our comprehension of genome evolution and function due to the number of intercourse dedication systems when you look at the group, the variety of intercourse chromosome maturation states, the simplicity of experimental manipulation during very early development. After shortly reviewing intercourse chromosome biology generally speaking, we give attention to what exactly is known about frog sex determination, intercourse chromosome development, and current, genomics-facilitated improvements within the industry. In conclusion we highlight gaps inside our knowledge that is current of sex chromosomes, and recommend priorities for future research that will advance broad familiarity with gene dosage and intercourse chromosome development.
Keyword phrases: Homomorphic, aneuploidy, dosage, compensation, intercourse dedication
Alterations in gene content quantity are a vital way to obtain variation for development, but brand new content figures that change gene dosage usually presents a challenge for organismal success. The scale of copy-number modification can add the removal or replication of just one or a genes that are few to polyploidization of most genes through whole-genome duplication 1-3. Post-duplication, genes routinely have certainly one of three fates: nonfunctionalization, for which just one associated with copies keeps any function; subfunctionalization, when the copies diversify to “share” the event associated with initial; or neofunctionalization, by which among the gene copies gains a novel function 2, 4, 5.Details